Cyanoacrylate adhesive perforator embolization (CAPE) of incompetent perforating veins of the leg, a feasibility study

Irwin M. Toonder*, Yee Lai Lam, James Lawson, Cees H. A. Wittens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

26 Citations (Web of Science)


Consideration of treating incompetent perforating veins remains a conundrum based on scientific evidence available till date. While subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery (SEPS) proved to be a worthy alternative for open surgery, other even less invasive techniques were being introduced by the late nineties of the last century. Percutaneous thermo-ablation techniques are still being used today and seem more effective than non-thermal techniques. However, thermal techniques require anaesthesia and potentially may cause inadvertent damage to surrounding tissues such as nerves. Cyanoacrylate adhesive has a proven record, but not for the treatment of chronic venous disease of the leg. Innovation has led to the development of the VenaSeal (R) Sapheon Closure System which has been designed to use a modified cyanoacrylate glue as a new therapy for truncal vein incompetence. This paper explores the feasibility of ultrasound guided cyanoacrylate adhesive perforator embolization (CAPE). Results show a 76% occlusion rate of incompetent perforating veins without serious complications leading to the conclusion that further investigation with a dedicated delivery device in a larger patient population is warranted.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-54
JournalPhlebology: The Journal of Venous Disease
Publication statusPublished - May 2014


  • Cyanoacrylate
  • VenaSeal (R)
  • Sapheon
  • perforating vein
  • embolization
  • ultrasound

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