Current Information on Sacral Neuromodulation and Botulinum Toxin Treatment for Refractory Idiopathic Overactive Bladder Syndrome: A Review

Randall K. Leong*, Stefan G. G. de Wachter, Philip E. V. A. Van Kerrebroeck

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

23 Citations (Web of Science)


The overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) negatively affects the daily life of many people. Conservative treatments, such as antimuscarinics, do not always lead to sufficient improvement of the complaints and/or are often associated with considerable side effects resulting in treatment failure. In the case of failure or intolerable side effects, sacral neuromodulation (SNM) and botulinum toxin are minimally invasive and reversible alternatives. Currently, of these alternatives only SNM with InterStimTM therapy has FDA approval for use in OAB patients. This review attempts to provide an update on the current position of SNM and botulinum toxin in the second-line management of adults with idiopathic OAB, based on the available clinical evidence concerning the efficacy and safety.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-253
JournalUrologia Internationalis
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • Sacral neuromodulation
  • Botulinum toxin
  • Overactive bladder syndrome

Cite this