CSF enhancement on post-contrast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images; a systematic review

Whitney M. Freeze*, Merel van der Thiel, Jeroen de Bresser, Catharina J. M. Klijn, Ellis S. van Etten, Jacobus F. A. Jansen, Louise van der Weerd, Heidi I. L. Jacobs, Walter H. Backes, Susanne J. van Veluw

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enhancement on T2-weighted post-contrast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (pcT2wFLAIR) images is a relatively unknown neuroradiological marker for gadolinium-based contrast agent extravasation due to blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption. We systematically reviewed human studies reporting on CSF enhancement on pcT2wFLAIR images to provide a comprehensive overview of prevalence of this new biomarker in healthy and diseased populations as well as its etiology and optimal detection methodology. We extracted information on the prevalence of CSF enhancement, its vascular risk factor and neuroimaging correlates, and methodological attributes of each study. Forty-four eligible studies were identified. By pooling data, we found that the prevalence of CSF enhancement was 82% (95% confidence interval (CI) 80 89) in meningitis (4 studies, 65 patients), 73% (95%CI 62-81) in cases with (post-) acute intracerebral hemorrhage (2 studies, 77 cases), 64% (95% CI 54-73) in cases who underwent surgery for aneurysm treatment (2 studies, 99 patients), 40% (95% CI 30-51) in cases who underwent surgery for carotid artery disease treatment (3 studies, 76 patients), 27% (95% CI 25-30) in cases with acute ischemic stroke (9 studies, 1148 patients), 21% (95% CI 17-23) in multiple sclerosis (6 studies, 897 patients), and 13% (95% CI 7-21) in adult controls (4 studies, 112 cases). Presence of CSF enhancement was associated with higher age in eleven studies, with lobar cerebral micmbleeds in one study, and with cerebral atrophy in four studies. PcT2wFLAIR imaging represents a promising method that can provide novel perspectives on BBB leakage into CSF compartments, with the potential to reveal important new insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of varying neurological diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102456
Number of pages11
JournalNeuroImage: Clinical
Volume28
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • Blood brain barrier
  • Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery
  • Gadolinium
  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Neurological disease
  • ACUTE REPERFUSION MARKER
  • BRAIN-BARRIER DISRUPTION
  • MIMICKING SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE
  • ISCHEMIC-STROKE PATIENTS
  • LEPTOMENINGEAL ENHANCEMENT
  • GADOLINIUM ENHANCEMENT
  • SULCAL HYPERINTENSITY
  • CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID
  • FLAIR
  • MRI

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