BACKGROUND: Many persons with stroke experience physical, cognitive, and emotional problems that contribute to restrictions in social participation. There is, however, a lack of knowledge on the long-term course of participation over time post-stroke.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the time course of participation up to 2 years post-stroke and to identify which demographic and stroke-related factors are associated with this time course.
METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study following 390 persons with stroke from hospital admission up to 2 years (at 2, 6, 12, and 24 months). Multilevel modeling with linear and quadratic time effects was used to examine the course of the frequency of vocational and social/leisure activities, experienced restrictions, and satisfaction with participation.
RESULTS: The frequency of vocational activities increased up to 1 year post-stroke and leveled off thereafter. Older and lower-educated persons showed less favorable courses of participation than younger and higher-educated persons, respectively. The frequency of social/leisure activities decreased post-stroke. Participation restrictions declined up to 1 year post-stroke and leveled off thereafter. Persons dependent in activities of daily living (ADL) kept experiencing more restrictions throughout time than independent persons. Satisfaction with participation increased slightly over time.
CONCLUSIONS: Changes in participation occurred mostly in the first year post-stroke. Particularly older and lower-educated persons, and those dependent in ADL showed less favorable courses of participation up to 2 years post-stroke. Clinicians can apply these findings in identifying persons most at risk of long-term unfavorable participation outcome and, thus, target rehabilitation programs accordingly.
- social participation
- 3 YEARS POSTSTROKE
- POST STROKE
- PROSPECTIVE COHORT
- UTRECHT SCALE