PURPOSE: To investigate the course of life of young adults diagnosed with biliary atresia (BA) in infancy by comparing patients who did and did not underwent transplantation with an age-matched Dutch reference group. METHODS: All patients from the Dutch BA registry, aged >18 years, were invited to complete the course of life questionnaire. RESULTS: Forty patients participated (response = 74%). Twenty-five had not undergone transplantation; 15 had undergone orthotopic liver transplantation. One significant between-group difference was found, namely in substance use and gambling. BA patients who underwent transplantation reported less use than the reference group (p = .01, moderate effect size). Additional moderate effect sizes were found for differences in psychosexual and social development and antisocial behavior. Patients who underwent transplantation had lower scores than one or both other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Development of BA survivors who did not undergo transplantation seems not delayed, whereas that of transplanted patients does seem somewhat delayed. However, patients who underwent transplantation display less risk behavior. Larger samples are necessary to confirm these findings.