Cost-Effectiveness of perioperative Vaginally Administered estrogen in postmenopausal women undergoing prolapse surgery (EVA trial): study protocol for a multicenter double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial

E.V. Vodegel*, S.E. Zwolsman, A. Vollebregt, R.G. Duijnhoven, J.E. Bosmans, L. Speksnijder, E.J. Roos, W. Spaans, F. Gerards, A. Adriaanse, F. Vernooij, A.L. Milani, M. Sikkema, M. Weemhoff, M. Mous, A. Damoiseaux, H. van Dongen, M. v d Ploeg, J. Veen, G. van de PolB. Broekman, P. Steures, F. Tjin-Asjoe, J. van der Stege, R. Mouw, C.H. van der Vaart, J.P.W.R. Roovers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: Surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is associated with high recurrence rates. The costs associated with the treatment of recurrent POP are huge, and the burden from women who encounter recurrent POP, negatively impacts their quality of life. Estrogen therapy might improve surgical outcome for POP due to its potential beneficial effects. It is thought that vaginal estrogen therapy improves healing and long-term maintenance of connective tissue integrity. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of perioperative vaginal estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women undergoing POP surgery.Methods: The EVA trial is a multi-center double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted in the Netherlands comparing the effectiveness and costs-effectiveness of vaginal estrogen therapy. This will be studied in 300 postmenopausal women undergoing primary POP surgery, with a POP-Q stage of >= 2. After randomization, participants administer vaginal estrogen cream or placebo cream from 4 to 6 weeks preoperative until 12 months postoperative. The primary outcome is subjective improvement of POP symptoms at 1 year follow-up, measured with the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) scale. Secondary outcomes are POP-Q anatomy in all compartments, re-interventions, surgery related complications, general and disease specific quality of life, sexual function, signs and complaints of vaginal atrophy, vaginal pH, adverse events, costs, and adherence to treatment. Follow up is scheduled at 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months postoperative. Data will be collected using validated questionnaires and out-patient visits including gynecological examination performed by an independent gynecologist.Discussion: This study investigates whether perioperative vaginal estrogen will be cost-effective in the surgical treatment of POP in postmenopausal women. It is hypothesized that estrogen therapy will show a reduction in recurrent POP symptoms and a reduction in reoperations for POP, with subsequent improved quality of life among women and cost savings.
Original languageEnglish
Article number439
Number of pages10
JournalBMC Women's Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2021


  • Pelvic organ prolapse
  • Vaginal estrogen therapy
  • Postmenopausal
  • Wound healing
  • Pelvic reconstructive surgery
  • Recurrence
  • Cost-effectiveness

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