Cost-effectiveness of a new urinary biomarker-based risk score compared to standard of care in prostate cancer diagnostics - a decision analytical model

Siebren Dijkstra, Tim M. Govers, Rianne J. Hendriks, Jack A. Schalken, Wim Van Criekinge, Leander Van Neste, Janneke P. C. Grutters, John P. Michiel Sedelaar, Inge M. van Oort*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


ObjectiveTo assess the cost-effectiveness of a new urinary biomarker-based risk score (SelectMDx; MDxHealth, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) to identify patients for transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy and to compare this with the current standard of care (SOC), using only prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to select for TRUS-guided biopsy.

Materials and MethodsA decision tree and Markov model were developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of SelectMDx as a reflex test vs SOC in men with a PSA level of >3 ng/mL. Transition probabilities, utilities and costs were derived from the literature and expert opinion. Cost-effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and healthcare costs of both diagnostic strategies, simulating the course of patients over a time horizon representing 18 years. Deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed to address uncertainty in assumptions.

ResultsA diagnostic strategy including SelectMDx with a cut-off chosen at a sensitivity of 95.7% for high-grade prostate cancer resulted in savings of Euro128 and a gain of 0.025 QALY per patient compared to the SOC strategy. The sensitivity analyses showed that the disutility assigned to active surveillance had a high impact on the QALYs gained and the disutility attributed to TRUS-guided biopsy only slightly influenced the outcome of the model.

ConclusionBased on the currently available evidence, the reduction of over diagnosis and overtreatment due to the use of the SelectMDx test in men with PSA levels of >3 ng/mL may lead to a reduction in total costs per patient and a gain in QALYs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)659-665
Number of pages7
JournalBJU International
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2017


  • prostate cancer
  • biomarker
  • SelectMDx
  • cost-effectiveness analysis
  • prostate biopsy

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