Cost-effectiveness analysis of sacral neuromodulation and botulinum toxin A treatment for patients with idiopathic overactive bladder

Randall K. Leong, Stephan G. G. de Wachter*, Manuela A. Joore, Philip E. V. A. Van Kerrebroeck

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


OBJECTIVE To assess and compare the costs and effects value of either starting with sacral neuromodulation (SNM) or botulinum toxin A (BTX) treatment in patients with refractory idiopathic overactive bladder from a societal perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS An economic model comparing SNM with BTX was developed. A clinical relevant effect (i.e. success) was defined as 50% or greater reduction in incontinence episodes or urgency frequency symptoms. Information on the clinical effectiveness of the two treatments and on the course of the disease with the two treatments were based primarily on published literature and, when required, on expert opinion. Both treatments were assumed to be performed under general anaesthesia and, for SNM treatment, first-stage tined lead test was used. All costs were based on national data from the year 2008. Analyses from the societal perspective were conducted for a 5-year duration. Costs were discounted at 4% and effects at 1.5%. In addition, different modelling scenarios were used to see determine any changes in the results obtained. RESULTS Starting with SNM resulted in a higher quality adjusted life year (QALY) gain (difference of 0.23) and a higher cost (difference of (sic)6428) compared to starting with BTX. The corresponding incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was (sic)27 991/QALY. The probability of this ratio being cost effective (e.g. under (sic)40 000/QALY) is 88%. SNM starts to be cost-effective after 4 years. SNM was not cost-effective in some other scenarios, such as when BTX was conducted under local anaesthesia or when peripheral nerve evaluation or bilateral testing was used for SNM. CONCLUSIONS Starting with SNM, treatment is cost-effective after 5 years compared to BTX. However, in some scenarios, such as the use of local anaesthesia for BTX treatment and SNM peripheral nerve evaluation or bilateral test, SNM was not cost-effective.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)558-564
JournalBJU International
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011


  • sacral neuromodulation
  • botulinum toxin
  • cost-effectiveness

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