Correlates of consistent condom use among recently initiated and traditionally circumcised men in the rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

A. Nyembezi*, R.A.C. Ruiter, B. van den Borne, S. Sifunda, I. Funani, P. Reddy

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: Consistent use of condoms is the most effective method of preventing STIs including HIV. However, recent evidence suggests that limited knowledge about HIV prevention benefits from male circumcision leads to inconsistent condom use among traditionally circumcised men. The aim of this paper is to report on the prevalence of consistent condom use and identify its psychosocial correlates to inform future HIV prevention strategies among traditionally circumcised men in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

Methods: A cross-sectional study using interviewer administered fully structured questionnaires was conducted among 1656 men who had undergone initiation and traditional male circumcision in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Logistic regression was used to evaluate univariate and multivariate relationships of psychosocial correlates with consistent condom use.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 21.4 years. About 45% belonged to the amaXhosa ethnic group, followed by 15.1% of the amaMpondo, 11.6% of the amaHlubi, and 27.9% from other ethnic groups. A total of 72.3% reported having a main sexual partner and of those 44.8% indicated having other sexual partners as well. About 49% reported consistent condom use and 80% used free government issued condoms, varies among ethnic groups. A total of 35.1% indicated having tested for HIV. Of those who tested for HIV, 46% reported inconsistent condom use when having sex with their sexual partners. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed a positive association between consistent condom use and the general knowledge of condom use, attitude towards condom use with main and casual sexual partners, subjective norm towards condom use with the main sexual partner, perceived self-efficacy towards condom use, positive self-esteem, beliefs about traditional male circumcision and STI protection, attitude towards gender based violence, and cultural alienation.

Conclusions: The study findings reveal important target points for future cultural sensitive health education aimed at increasing consistent condom use among initiated and traditionally circumcised men in the Eastern Cape Province.

Original languageEnglish
Article number668
Number of pages11
JournalBMC Public Health
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2014


  • Consistent condom use
  • Traditional male initiation and circumcision
  • STI/ HIV intervention
  • Rural areas
  • Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

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