Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography in recalls from the Dutch breast cancer screening program: validation of results in a large multireader, multicase study

U. C. Lalji*, I. P. L. Houben, R. Prevos, S. Gommers, M. van Goethem, S. Vanwetswinkel, R. Pijnappel, R. Steeman, C. Frotscher, W. Mok, P. Nelemans, M. L. Smidt, R. G. Beets-Tan, J. E. Wildberger, M. B. I. Lobbes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a promising problem-solving tool in women referred from a breast cancer screening program. We aimed to study the validity of preliminary results of CESM using a larger panel of radiologists with different levels of CESM experience. All women referred from the Dutch breast cancer screening program were eligible for CESM. 199 consecutive cases were viewed by ten radiologists. Four had extensive CESM experience, three had no CESM experience but were experienced breast radiologists, and three were residents. All readers provided a BI-RADS score for the low-energy CESM images first, after which the score could be adjusted when viewing the entire CESM exam. BI-RADS 1-3 were considered benign and BI-RADS 4-5 malignant. With this cutoff, we calculated sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve. CESM increased diagnostic accuracy in all readers. The performance for all readers using CESM was: sensitivity 96.9 % (+3.9 %), specificity 69.7 % (+33.8 %) and area under the ROC curve 0.833 (+0.188). CESM is superior to conventional mammography, with excellent problem-solving capabilities in women referred from the breast cancer screening program. Previous results were confirmed even in a larger panel of readers with varying CESM experience. aEuro cent CESM is consistently superior to conventional mammography aEuro cent CESM increases diagnostic accuracy regardless of a reader's experience aEuro cent CESM is an excellent problem-solving tool in recalls from screening programs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4371-4379
JournalEuropean Radiology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2016


  • Breast cancer
  • Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography
  • CESM
  • Contrast-enhanced dual energy mammography
  • CEDM

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