Constructivist Facts as the Bridge Between Is and Ought

J. Hage*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This article describes how the facts in social reality take an intermediate position between objective facts and purely subjective 'facts'. In turn, these social facts can be subdivided into constructivist and non-constructivist facts. The defining difference is that non-constructivist facts are completely determined by an approximate consensus between the members of a social group, while constructivist facts are founded in such a consensus but can nevertheless be questioned. Ought fact are such constructivist facts. Because they are founded in social reality, a naturalistic theory of ought facts is attractive. Because constructivist facts are always open to questioning, we can explain why the facts in social reality may found ought facts but are nevertheless not the final word about them.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-81
Number of pages29
JournalInternational Journal for the Semiotics of Law
Issue number1
Early online date18 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Constructivist facts
  • Is
  • Ought
  • Social reality

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