Concurrent validity and reliability of wireless instrumented insoles measuring postural balance and temporal gait parameters

Michiel S. Oerbekke, Mirelle J. Stukstette, Kurt Schutte, Rob A. de Bie, Martijn F. Pisters, Benedicte Vanwanseele*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: The OpenGo seems promising to take gait analysis out of laboratory settings due to its capability of long-term measurements and mobility. However, the OpenGo's concurrent validity and reliability need to be assessed to determine if the instrument is suitable for validation in patient samples.

Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers participated. Center of pressure data were collected under eyes open and closed conditions with participants performing unilateral stance trials on the gold standard (AMTI OR6-7 force plate) while wearing the OpenGo. Temporal gait data (stance time, gait cycle time, and cadence) were collected at a self-selected comfortable walking speed with participants performing test-retest trials on an instrumented treadmill while wearing the OpenGo. Validity was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Reliability was assessed with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (2,1) and smallest detectable changes were calculated.

Findings: Negative means of differences were found in all measured parameters, illustrating lower scores for the OpenGo on average. The OpenGo showed negative upper limits of agreement in center of pressure parameters on the mediolateral axis. Temporal reliability ICCs ranged from 0.90-0.93. Smallest detectable changes for both stance times were 0.04 (left) and 0.05 (right) seconds, for gait cycle time 0.08 s, and for cadence 4.5 steps per minute.

Interpretation: The OpenGo is valid and reliable for the measurement of temporal gait parameters during walking. Measurements of center of pressure parameters during unilateral stance are not considered valid. The OpenGo seems a promising instrument for clinically screening and monitoring temporal gait parameters in patients, however validation in patient populations is needed. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)116-124
Number of pages9
JournalGait & Posture
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2017


  • Center of pressure
  • Spatiotemporal
  • Gait
  • Instrumented insoles
  • KNEE
  • FOOT


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