The human skeleton has a remarkable regeneration capacity. Nevertheless, 5-10 % of the bone fractures fails to heal and develops into a non-union which is a challenging orthopedic complication requiring complex and expensive treatment. This review paper will discuss four different computational models, each capturing a particular clinical case of non-union: non-union induced by reaming of the marrow canal and periosteal stripping, non-union due to a large interfragmentary gap, non-union due to a genetic disorder [i.e. NF1 related congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia (CPT)] and non-union due to mechanical overload. Together, the four computational models are able to capture the etiology of a wide range of fracture non-union types and design novel treatment strategies thereof. Further research is required to corroborate the computational models in both animal and human settings and translate them from bench to bed side.
- Journal Article