Comparative in vivo study of six hydroxyapatite-based bone graft substitutes

Pamela Habibovic*, Moyo C. Kruyt, Maria V. Juhl, Stuart Clyens, Roberta Martinetti, Laura Dolcini, Naseem Theilgaard, Clemens A. van Blitterswijk

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Improvement of synthetic bone graft substitutes as suitable alternatives to a patient's own bone graft remains a challenge in biomaterials research. Our goal was to answer the question of whether improved osteoinductivity of a material would also translate to better bone-healing orthotopically. Three porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics (BCPA, BCPB, and BCPC), consisting of hydroxyapatite and P-tricalcium phosphate, a porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic reinforced with a bioresorbable polylactic acid to improve its mechanical properties (BCPC+), a pure hydroxyapatite ceramic (HA), and a carbonated apatite ceramic (CA) were implanted intramuscularly and orthotopically by using a transverse process model in 11 goats for 12 weeks. BCPA and BCPB had similar chemical composition but differed in their microstructure. BCPB was not osteoinductive at all, but BCPA induced ectopic bone formation in 9 of 11 animals. Orthotopically, BCPA performed better than BCPB in both the amount and rate of bone formation. BCPC, similar to BCPA structurally and physicochemically, showed comparable results ectopically and orthotopically. Addition of resorbable polymer to BCPC made the material less osteoinductive (4 of 11 animals) and delayed bone formation orthotopically. Neither HA nor CA were osteoinductive, and their orthotopic performance was inferior to the osteoinductive ceramics. The results of the present study showed that material-derived osteoinduction significantly enhanced bone healing orthotopically, and that this material property appeared more sensitive for predicting orthotopic performance than physicochemical and structural characteristics. (C) 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1363-1370
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Research
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • calcium phosphate ceramics
  • composite
  • in vivo
  • osteoconduction
  • osteoinduction
  • 1-YEAR


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