Community-Based Control of Malaria Vectors Using Bacillus thuringiensis var. Israelensis (Bti) in Rwanda

Emmanuel Hakizimana, Chantal Marie Ingabire, Alexis Rulisa, Fredrick Kateera, Bart van den Borne, Claude Mambo Muvunyi, Michele van Vugt, Leon Mutesa, Gebbiena M Bron, Willem Takken, Constantianus J M Koenraadt

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Larval source management (LSM) programs for control of malaria vectors are often vertically organized, while there is much potential for involving local communities in program implementation. To address this, we evaluated the entomological impact of community-based application of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) in a rice irrigation scheme in Ruhuha, Rwanda. A non-randomized trial with control compared a Bti implementation program that was supervised by the project team (ES) with a program that was led and carried out by local rice farming communities (CB). One other area served as a control to assess mosquito populations without Bti application. Entomological surveys were carried out every two weeks and assessed the presence and abundance of the larval, pupal, and adult stages of Anopheles mosquitoes. In ES, the per round reduction in Anopheles larval habitats was estimated at 49%. This reduction was less in CB (28%) and control (22%) although the per round reduction in CB was still significantly higher than in control. Pupal production was almost completely prevented from round 5 (out of 10) onwards in both CB (average habitat occupancy 0.43%) and ES intervention arms (average habitat occupancy 0.27%), whereas pupal occupancy rates were on average 12.8% from round 5 onwards in the control. Emergence of adult mosquitoes from rice fields was thus prevented although this was not directly noticeable in adult An. gambiae populations in houses nearby the rice fields. Together with our earlier work on the willingness to financially contribute to the LSM program and the high perceived safety and acceptance of the Bti product, the current study demonstrates that, in an environment with limited resources, communities could become more engaged in LSM program implementation and contribute directly to malaria vector control in their environment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6699
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 30 May 2022


  • larval source management
  • vector control
  • Bacillus thuringiensis var
  • israelensis
  • community engagement
  • NETS

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