Cognitive decline is associated with an accelerated rate of bone loss and increased fracture risk in women: a prospective study from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study

D. Bliuc*, T. Tran, J.D. Adachi, G.J. Atkins, C. Berger, J. van den Bergh, R. Cappai, J.A. Eisman, T. van Geel, P. Geusens, D. Goltzman, D.A. Hanley, R. Josse, S. Kaiser, C.S. Kovacs, L. Langsetmo, J.C. Prior, T.V. Nguyen, L.B. Solomon, C. StapledonJ.R. Center, Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) Research Group

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Cognitive decline and osteoporosis often coexist and some evidence suggests a causal link. However, there are no data on the longitudinal relationship between cognitive decline, bone loss and fracture risk, independent of aging. This study aimed to determine the association between: (i) cognitive decline and bone loss; and (ii) clinically significant cognitive decline (>= 3 points) on Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) over the first 5 years and subsequent fracture risk over the following 10 years. A total of 1741 women and 620 men aged >= 65 years from the population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study were followed from 1997 to 2013. Association between cognitive decline and (i) bone loss was estimated using mixed-effects models; and (ii) fracture risk was estimated using adjusted Cox models. Over 95% of participants had normal cognition at baseline (MMSE >= 24). The annual % change in MMSE was similar for both genders (women -0.33, interquartile range [IQR] -0.70 to +0.00; and men -0.34, IQR: -0.99 to 0.01). After multivariable adjustment, cognitive decline was associated with bone loss in women (6.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2% to 9.9% for each percent decline in MMSE from baseline) but not men. Approximately 13% of participants experienced significant cognitive decline by year 5. In women, fracture risk was increased significantly (multivariable hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.34). There were too few men to analyze. There was a significant association between cognitive decline and both bone loss and fracture risk, independent of aging, in women. Further studies are needed to determine mechanisms that link these common conditions. (c) 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2106-2115
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
Volume36
Issue number11
Early online date20 Jul 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021

Keywords

  • AGING
  • BONE MINERAL DENSITY
  • COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE
  • LONGITUDINAL STUDY
  • OSTEOPOROSIS
  • RELIABLE CHANGE INDEXES
  • REPLACEMENT THERAPY
  • HIP-FRACTURES
  • ELDERLY-WOMEN
  • DEMENTIA
  • MEN

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