The aim of this study was to examine the frequency and content of several cognitions (negative self-schemas and weight, shape, and eating-focused cognitions) in obese binge eaters and obese non-binge eaters. We used a structured clinical interview to detect differences in cognitions. The majority of obese binge eaters mentioned negative self-schemas that could be characterized as negative generalizations about the self combined with weight, shape ,and eating concerns that were not combined with negative generalizations about the self. Participants with negative self-schemas, irrespective of binge category, were more depressed and had lower self-esteem than the other participants. Finally, with respect to the content analyses of negative self-schemas, we found that both groups most often mentioned themes such as rejection, unworthiness, and lack of willpower. However, obese non-binge eaters mentioned more self-schemas regarding lack of willpower, whereas obese binge eaters were more preoccupied with rejection and unwothiness. Implications for future work are discussed, including how cognitive techniques focusing on negative self-schemas might improve treatment for obesity.