Cognition and motor control as a function of Delta9-THC concentration in serum and oral fluid: limits of impairment

J.G. Ramaekers*, M.R. Moeller, P. van Ruitenbeek, E.L. Theunissen, E. Schneider, G. Kauert

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Cannabis use has been associated with increased risk of becoming involved in traffic accidents; however, the relation between THC concentration and driver impairment is relatively obscure. The present study was designed to define performance impairment as a function of THC in serum and oral fluid in order to provide a scientific framework to the development of per se limits for driving under the influence of cannabis. Twenty recreational users of cannabis participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over study. Subjects were administered single doses of 0, 250 and 500 mu g/kg THC by smoking. Performance tests measuring skills related to driving were conducted at regular intervals between 15 min and 6 h post smoking and included measures of perceptual-motor control (Critical tracking task), motor impulsivity (Stop signal task) and cognitive function (Tower of London). Blood and oral fluid were collected throughout testing. Results showed a strong and linear relation between THC in serum and oral fluid. Linear relations between magnitude of performance impairment and THC in oral fluid and serum, however, were low. A more promising way to define threshold levels of impairment was found by comparing the proportion of observations showing impairment or no impairment as a function of THC Concentration. The proportion of observations showing impairment progressively increased as a function of serum THC in every task. Binomial tests showed an initial and significant shift toward impairment in the Critical tracking task for serum THC concentrations between 2 and 5 ng/ml. At concentrations between 5 and 10 ng/ml approximately 75-90% of the observations were indicative of significant impairment in every performance test. At THC concentrations > 30 ng/ml the proportion of observations indicative of significant impairment increased to a full 100% in every performance tests. It is concluded that serum THC concentrations between 2 and 5 ng/ml establish the lower and upper range of a THC limit for impairment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)114-22
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2006

Cite this