BACKGROUND: The long-term longitudinal evidence for a relation between coffee intake and hypertension is relatively scarce. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess whether coffee intake is associated with the incidence of hypertension. DESIGN: This study was conducted on a cohort of 2985 men and 3383 women who had a baseline visit and follow-up visits after 6 and 11 y. Baseline coffee intake was ascertained with questionnaires and categorized into 0, >0-3, >3-6, and >6 cups/d. Hypertension was defined as a mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) >or=140 mm Hg over both follow-up measurements, a mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >or=90 mm Hg over both follow-up measurements, or the use of antihypertensive medication at any follow-up measurement. RESULTS: Coffee abstainers at baseline had a lower risk of hypertension than did those with a coffee intake of >0-3 cups/d [odds ratio (OR): 0.54; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.92]. Women who drank >6 cups/d had a lower risk than did women who drank >0-3 cups/d (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.98). Subjects aged >or=39 y at baseline had 0.35 mm Hg (95% CI: -0.59, -0.11 mm Hg) lower SBP per cup intake/d and 0.11 mm Hg lower DBP (95% CI: -0.26, 0.03 mm Hg) than did those aged <39 y at baseline, although the difference in DBP was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee abstinence is associated with a lower hypertension risk than is low coffee consumption. An inverse U-shaped relation between coffee intake and risk of hypertension was observed in the women.
Uiterwaal, C. S., Verschuren, W. M., Bueno de Mesquita, H. B., Ocke, M., Geleijnse, J. M., Boshuizen, H. C., Peeters, P. H., Feskens, E. J., & Grobbee, D. E. (2007). Coffee intake and incidence of hypertension. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85(3), 718-723. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/85.3.718