Co-morbid manifestations in COPD.

E.F.M. Wouters, C.P.M. Celis, M.K. Breyer, E.P.A. Rutten, L. Graat-Verboom, M.A. Spruit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) is a major burden of morbidity worldwide. Copd is now considered as a multi-component disease and attention has focused on the role of co-morbidities as part of the natural history of the disease process. Smoking itself, the most important risk factor for copd, has been linked to a broad range of pathologies. The review will provide a summary concerning cardiovascular morbidity, cancer, changes in body composition, osteoporosis, and endocrinological disturbances in copd.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-151
JournalRespiratory Medicine COPD Update
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2007

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