BACKGROUND: Although insulin secretion after carbohydrate ingestion is severely impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes, amino acid and protein co-ingestion can substantially increase plasma insulin responses. OBJECTIVE: We investigated insulin responses and the subsequent plasma glucose disposal rates after the ingestion of carbohydrate alone (CHO) or with a protein hydrolysate and amino acid mixture (CHO+PRO) in patients with a long-term diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Ten type 2 diabetic patients [mean (+/-SEM) age: 62 +/- 2 y; body mass index (kg/m(2)): 27 +/- 1] and 9 healthy control subjects (age: 58 +/- 1 y; body mass index: 27 +/- 1) participated in 2 trials in which the plasma insulin response was measured after the ingestion of 0.7 g carbohydrate . kg(-1) . h(-1) with or without 0.35 g . kg(-1) . h(-1) of a mixture that contained a protein hydrolysate, leucine, and phenylalanine. Continuous infusions with [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose were then given to investigate plasma glucose disposal. RESULTS: Plasma insulin responses were higher by 299 +/- 64% and 132 +/- 63% in the CHO+PRO trial than in the CHO trial in the diabetic patients and the matched control subjects, respectively (P < 0.001). The subsequent plasma glucose responses were reduced by 28 +/- 6% and 33 +/- 3% in the CHO+PRO trial than in the CHO trial in the diabetic patients and the matched control subjects, respectively (P < 0.001). The reduced plasma glucose response in the diabetic patients was attributed to a 13 +/- 3% increase in glucose disposal (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The combined ingestion of carbohydrate with a protein hydrolysate and amino acid mixture significantly increases de novo insulin production in patients with a long-term diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. The increased insulin response stimulates plasma glucose disposal and reduces postprandial glucose concentrations.
Manders, R. J. F., Wagenmakers, A. J. M., Koopman, R., Zorenc, A. H. G., Menheere, P. P., Wyse, D. G., Saris, W. H., & van Loon, L. J. (2005). Co-ingestion of a protein hydrolysate and amino acid mixture with carbohydrate improves plasma glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82(1), 76-83. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/82.1.76