Closed-Loop Control of Arterial CO2 in Mechanical Ventilation of Neonates

Mateusz Buglowski, Valerie Pfannschmidt, Sabine Becker, Oliver Braun, Matthias Hutten, Daan Ophelders, Camelia Oprea, Steffen Pattai, Mark Schoberer, Andre Stollenwerk

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingAcademicpeer-review


During mechanical ventilation of the neonate the main goal is to stabilize respiratory function of the often premature lungs. Ventilating the patient without inflicting harm is then the subordinated next goal. Ideally the arterial partial pressure of CO2 lays within a normocapnic range and fluctuations are kept minimal. By closely monitoring CO2 and controlling ventilation parameters accordingly, CO2 levels in the blood can be managed. We present an approach consisting of a cascaded controller for arterial CO2 by approximating arterial partial pressure PaCO2 from end-tidal PetCO2. As a proof of concept, feasibility of the controller was first evaluated on a mathematical patient model and subsequently in-vivo in lamb experiments. The controller is able to regulate CO2 into a normocapnic range in both setups with satisfactory stationarity within the target range. Estimation of the arterial partial pressure of CO2 remains a critical aspect that needs to be further investigated. Clinical relevance-Closed-loop control of CO2 in mechanical ventilation aims to avoid PaC O2 extremes and to reduce fluctuations. Both are a relevant risk factors especially for neurological complications among preterm newborns.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication44th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-7281-2782-8
ISBN (Print)978-1-7281-2783-5
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022

Publication series

SeriesIEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference Proceedings


  • Animals
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Partial Pressure
  • Respiration
  • Respiration, Artificial/methods
  • Sheep
  • Tidal Volume/physiology

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