There is a need for better markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of chronic inflammatory diseases. Proteomic strategies can be helpful to detect new biomarkers. Proteomic analyses are performed to characterize the behaviour of the system rather than the behaviour of any single component. Since the genome has been unravelled, the proteome received more attention. Aim of this review was to focus on the use of different proteomics techniques to detect potential and/or common biomarkers in chronic inflammatory diseases. The identified and validated proteins detected in the different studies are compared and discussed to conclude if there are some common markers which can be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of the three chronic inflammatory diseases described in this study; multiple sclerosis, rheumatic diseases and lung inflammatory diseases. The heat shock protein family (hsp) was entitled as biomarkers with potential for further research in multiple sclerosis. Myeloid-related protein 8 (MRP-8) was found in three different rheumatoid arthritis (RA) studies with different sample materials and could be a potential marker for RA. alpha 1-Antitrypsin was validated in two studies as a marker for sarcoidosis and alpha 1-antitrypsin was also found to be a marker for cystic fibrosis (CF), together with myeloperoxidase and IgG.