ABSTRACT: The number of applications of fluorine 19 (F) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and spectroscopy in biomedical and clinical research is steadily growing. The 100% natural abundance of fluorine and its relatively high sensitivity for MR (83% to that of protons) make it an interesting nucleus for a wide range of MR applications. Fluorinated contrast media have a number of advantages over the conventionally used gadolinium-based or iron-based contrast agents. The absence of an endogenous fluorine background intensity in the human body facilitates reliable quantification of fluorinated contrast medium or drugs. Anatomy can be visualized separately with proton MR imaging, creating the application of hybrid hydrogen 1 (H)/19F MR imaging. The availability of 2 channels (ie, the H and F channels) enables dual-targeted molecular imaging. Recently, novel developments have emerged on fluorine-based contrast media in preclinical studies and imaging techniques. The developments in fluorine MR seem promising for clinical applications, with contributions in therapy monitoring, assessment of lung function, angiography, and molecular imaging. This review outlines the translation from recent advances in preclinical MR imaging and spectroscopy to future perspectives of clinical hybrid H/F MR imaging applications.
Wolters, M., Mohades, S. G., Hackeng, T. M., Post, M. J., Kooi, M. E., & Backes, W. H. (2013). Clinical perspectives of hybrid proton-fluorine magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Investigative Radiology, 48(5), 341-350. https://doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0b013e318277528c