Clinical, Functional, and Mental Health Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Recipients 3 Months After a Diagnosis of COVID-19

Raphaël Duivenvoorden, Priya Vart, Marlies Noordzij, Augusto C Soares Dos Santos, Alex B Zulkarnaev, Casper F M Franssen, Dirk Kuypers, Erol Demir, Hormat Rahimzadeh, Julia Kerschbaum, Kitty J Jager, Kultigin Turkmen, Marc H Hemmelder, Marcel Schouten, María Luisa Rodríguez-Ferrero, Marta Crespo, Ron T Gansevoort, Luuk B Hilbrands, ERACODA Collaborators

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant patients are at high risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related mortality. However, limited data are available on longer-term clinical, functional, and mental health outcomes in patients who survive COVID-19.

METHODS: We analyzed data from adult kidney transplant patients in the European Renal Association COVID-19 Database who presented with COVID-19 between February 1, 2020, and January 31, 2021.

RESULTS: We included 912 patients with a mean age of 56.7 (±13.7) y. 26.4% were not hospitalized, 57.5% were hospitalized without need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and 16.1% were hospitalized and admitted to the ICU. At 3 mo follow-up survival was 82.3% overall, and 98.8%, 84.2%, and 49.0%, respectively, in each group. At 3 mo follow-up biopsy-proven acute rejection, need for renal replacement therapy, and graft failure occurred in the overall group in 0.8%, 2.6%, and 1.8% respectively, and in 2.1%, 10.6%, and 10.6% of ICU-admitted patients, respectively. Of the surviving patients, 83.3% and 94.4% reached their pre-COVID-19 physician-reported functional and mental health status, respectively, within 3 mo. Of patients who had not yet reached their prior functional and mental health status, their treating physicians expected that 79.6% and 80.0%, respectively, still would do so within the coming year. ICU admission was independently associated with a low likelihood to reach prior functional and mental health status.

CONCLUSIONS: In kidney transplant recipients alive at 3-mo follow-up, clinical, physician-reported functional, and mental health recovery was good for both nonhospitalized and hospitalized patients. Recovery was, however, less favorable for patients who had been admitted to the ICU.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1012-1023
Number of pages12
JournalTransplantation
Volume106
Issue number5
Early online date21 Mar 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Keywords

  • DIALYSIS PATIENTS
  • DISEASE
  • ERACODA
  • MORTALITY
  • SOLID-ORGAN TRANSPLANT

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