For colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), surgical resection is the only potentially curative therapy, but even successfully resected patients often face disease recurrence, leading to 5-year survival rate below 50%. Despite available preoperative stratification strategies, it is not fully elucidated which patients actually benefit from CRLM resection. Here we evaluated osteopontin, a secreted glyco-phosphoprotein, as a biomarker in the context of CRLM resection. Tissue levels of osteopontin were analysed in CRLM using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Pre- and postoperative osteopontin serum concentrations were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 125 patients undergoing resection of CRLM as well as 65 healthy controls. Correlating with an upregulation of osteopontin tissue expression in CRLM, osteopontin serum levels were significantly elevated in patients with CRLM compared to healthy controls. Importantly, high pre- and post-operative osteopontin serum levels were associated with a poor prognosis after tumour resection. Patients with initial osteopontin serum levels above our ideal cut-off value of 264.4 ng/mL showed a significantly impaired median overall survival of 304 days compared to 1394 days for patients with low osteopontin levels. Together, our data suggest a role of osteopontin as a prognostic biomarker in patients with resectable CRLM that might help to identify patients who particularly benefit from liver resection.