A lowering of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and/or the presence of albuminuria are signs of chronic renal disease. Both variables are for the most part independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Albuminuria is a marker of endothelial dysfunction. A decrease of the GFR is associated with non-traditional risk factors, e.g. renal anaemia, uraemic toxins due to a decrease of the renal clearance, hyperhomocysteinaemia caused by a diminished homocysteine metabolism, excessive activation of the sympathetic nervous system which is related to sleep apnoea syndrome, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia associated with the formation of vasotoxic, oxidised LDL cholesterol. These non-traditional risk factors may, alone or in combination with traditional atherogenic risk factors (e.g. age, male gender, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, obesity, positive family history and diabetes mellitus), partially via endothelial dysfunction, result in harmful effects on arterial function, increasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Different stages of chronic kidney disease are associated with specific risk factors, making a specific therapeutic approach essential.
|Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde
|Published - 1 Jan 2008