Cholecystokinin/Cholecystokinin-1 receptor-mediated peripheral activation of the afferent vagus by enteral nutrients attenuates inflammation in rats.

T. Lubbers, J. de Haan, M.D. Luyer, I. Verbaeys, M. Hadfoune, C.H.C. Dejong, W.A. Buurman, J.W. Greve

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:: The current study investigates activation of the nutritional anti-inflammatory pathway by lipid-rich nutrition. BACKGROUND:: Enteral nutrition activates humoral and neural pathways to regulate food intake and sustain energy balance. Recently, we demonstrated that enteral nutrition and in particular lipid-rich nutrition modulates inflammation and prevents organ damage. METHODS:: Male rats were fasted or fed lipid-rich nutrition before hemorrhagic shock. Disruption of afferent vagal fibers with capsaicin (deafferentation) was used to investigate involvement of afferent fibers. Peripheral activation of afferent vagal fibers via cholecystokinin (CCK)-mediated activation of CCK-1 receptors was investigated using administration of the selectively peripheral acting CCK-1 receptor antagonist, A70104 and PEGylated-CCK9. Tissue and blood were collected 90 minutes after shock to assess systemic inflammation and intestinal integrity. RESULTS:: Deafferentation reversed the inhibitory effect of lipid-rich nutrition on systemic levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, and on intestinal leakage of horseradish peroxidase and bacterial translocation. Furthermore, the protective effects of lipid-rich nutrition were negated by A70104, indicating that lipid-rich nutrition triggers peripheral CCK-1 receptors on vagal afferents to modulate inflammation. These findings were substantiated by the fact that pretreatment of fasted rats with PEGylated-CCK9, which acts on peripheral CCK-1 receptors, attenuated systemic inflammation, and loss of intestinal integrity. CONCLUSION:: These data demonstrate that enteral lipid-rich nutrition modulates inflammation and preserves intestinal integrity via CCK release which activates CCK-1 receptors located on afferent vagal fibers. Taken together, the current study reveals a novel gut-brain-immune axis and provides new insight into the applicability of enteral nutrition to treat inflammatory conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)376-382
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Surgery
Volume252
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2010

Keywords

  • PULMONARY INTERSTITIAL MACROPHAGES
  • NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA
  • HIGH-FAT NUTRITION
  • FOOD-INTAKE
  • HEMORRHAGIC-SHOCK
  • CHOLECYSTOKININ-OCTAPEPTIDE
  • VAGAL AFFERENTS
  • PEGYLATED CHOLECYSTOKININ
  • GLUCOSE-PRODUCTION
  • INDUCED COLITIS

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