Characteristics, stability and outcomes of the 2011 GOLD COPD groups in the ECLIPSE cohort

A. Agusti*, L.D. Edwards, B. Celli, W. MacNee, P.M. Calverley, H. Mullerova, D.A. Lomas, E.F.M. Wouters, P. Bakke, S. Rennard, C. Crim, B.E. Miller, H.O. Coxson, J.C. Yates, R. Tal Singer, J. Vestbo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The 2011 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) patients with COPD into four groups (A to D).We explored the stability and relationship to outcomes of these groups within the (n=2101).Main results showed that: (1) these groups differed in several functional, imaging and biological characteristics in addition to those their own definition; (2) A and D groups were relatively stable over whereas groups B and C showed more temporal variability; (3) the risk of exacerbation over 3 years increased progressively from A to D, whereas hospitalization and mortality were lowest in A, highest in D and similar in B and C, despite the former having milder airflow limitation. prevalence of comorbidities and persistent systemic inflammation were group B.The different longitudinal behaviour of group A vs. B and C vs. pair with similar FEV1 values) supports the GOLD 2011 proposal of patients by more than FEV1 only. However the assumption that symptoms equate to risk appears to be naive, as groups B and C carry equally poor outcomes, though for different reasons.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)636-646
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Respiratory Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2013



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