Background: The search for biomarkers of appetite is very active. Objectives: The aims were to compare dynamics of hunger and fullness ratings on a visual analog scale (VAS) with dynamics of glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine, ghrelin, glucose, and insulin concentrations throughout different meal patterns-and thus different timings of nutrient delivery to the gut-by using a statistical approach that focuses on within-subject relations of these observations and to investigate whether appetite ratings are synchronized with or lag behind or in front of changes in hormone and glucose concentrations. Design: Subjects (n = 38) with a mean (+/- SD) age of 24 +/- 6 y and BMI (in kg/m(2)) of 25.1 +/- 3.1 came to the university twice for consumption of a 4-course lunch in 0.5 or 2 h (randomized crossover design). Per subject regression slopes and R(2) values of VAS scores on hormone and glucose concentrations were calculated. We tested whether the means of the slopes were different from zero. Regarding possible lags in the relations, the analyses were repeated with VAS scores related to hormone and glucose concentrations of the relevant previous and following measurement periods. Results: VAS scores and hormone and glucose concentrations changed synchronously (P 2011;94:717-25.
Lemmens, S. G., Martens, E. A., Kester, A. D. M., & Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. (2011). Changes in gut hormone and glucose concentrations in relation to hunger and fullness. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94(3), 717-725. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.110.008631