Acid-suppressive therapy and subsequent changes in gastric mucosa and luminal environment rank highly amongst the investigated issues in gastroenterology over the past two to three decades. Herewith, we present an overview of these intragastric changes, particularly during long-term administration of acid-suppresive medication and concurrent infection with Helicobacter pylori. Current evidence indicates that: il Long-term acid suppression facilitates the development of fundic ECL cell hyperplasia, especially in the presence of Helicobacter pylori. No neoplastic changes directly attributable to acid suppression have so far been demonstrated in humans. ii] Acid-suppressive therapy increases the risk of enteric infections. iii) Acid-suppressive therapy does not alter fat and mineral bioavailability but may decrease the absorption of protein-bound vitamin B-18. iv) Acid suppression invariably results in intragastric overgrowth of non-Helicobacter pylori bacterial species. The concurrent infection with Helicobacter pylori may promote this bacterial overgrowth and the intragastric formation of N-nitrosamines. v] Acid-suppressive therapy alters the natural course of Helicobacter pylori gastritis, transforming the antral-predominant pattern into a body-predominant pattern, which in turn may progress to body gland atrophy. The pathophysiology of this phenomenon is currently under investigation. vi) In view of the potential adverse effects of acid suppression in the presence of Helicobacter pylori, the screen-and-treat strategy is advocated for Helicobacter pylori in subjects considered for long-term treatment.