Carotenoid intakes and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status: a pooled analysis of 18 prospective cohort studies

Xuehong Zhang*, Donna Spiegelman, Laura Baglietto, Leslie Bernstein, Deborah A. Boggs, Piet A. van den Brandt, Julie E. Buring, Susan M. Gapstur, Graham G. Giles, Edward Giovannucci, Gary Goodman, Susan E. Hankinson, Kathy J. Helzlsouer, Pamela L. Horn-Ross, Manami Inoue, Seungyoun Jung, Polyna Khudyakov, Susanna C. Larsson, Marie Lof, Marjorie L. McCulloughAnthony B. Miller, Marian L. Neuhouser, Julie R. Palmer, Yikyung Park, Kim Robien, Thomas E. Rohan, Julie A. Ross, Leo J. Schouten, James M. Shikany, Shoichiro Tsugane, Kala Visvanathan, Elisabete Weiderpass, Alicja Wolk, Walter C. Willett, Shumin M. Zhang, Regina G. Ziegler, Stephanie A. Smith-Warner

*Corresponding author for this work

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Background: Epidemiologic studies examining associations between carotenoid intakes and risk of breast cancer by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status are limited. Objective: We investigated these associations in a pooled analysis of 18 cohort studies. Design: Of 1,028,438 participants followed for a maximum follow-up of 26 y across studies, 33,380 incident invasive breast cancers were identified. Study-specific RRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression and then pooled by using a random-effects model. Results: alpha-Carotene, beta-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin intakes were inversely associated with the risk of ER-negative (ER-) breast cancer (pooled multivariable RRs of the comparison between the highest and lowest quintiles): alpha-carotene (0.87; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.97), beta-carotene (0.84; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.93), and lutein/zeaxanthin (0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.95). These variables were not inversely associated with the risk of ER-positive (ER+) breast cancer (pooled multivariable RRs for the same comparison): a-carotene (1.04; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.09), beta-carotene (1.04; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.10), and lutein/zeaxanthin (1.00; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.07). Although the pooled RRs for quintile 5 for beta-cryptoxanthin were not significant, inverse trends were observed for ER- and ER+ breast cancer (P-trend
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)713-725
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012

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