Objective The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to describe comprehensively the pattern of cardiac remodeling during normotensive human singleton pregnancy and to compare it with that of pregnancy complicated by hypertension.
Methods We performed a meta-analysis of the current literature on cardiac remodeling during normotensive and complicated pregnancies. Literature was retrieved from PubMed (NCBI) and EMBASE (Ovid) databases. Included studies needed to report a reference measurement (matched non-pregnant control group, prepregnancy or postpartum) and measurements made during predetermined gestational-age intervals. Mean differences between reference and pregnancy data were calculated using the random-effects model described by DerSimonian and Laird.
Results Forty-eight studies were included in the meta-analysis, with publication dates ranging from 1977 to 2016. During normotensive pregnancy, most geometric indices started to increase in the second trimester. Left ventricular mass (LVM) increased by 28.36 (95% CI, 19.73-37.00) g (24%), and relative wall thickness (RWT) increased by 0.03 (95% CI, 0.02-0.05) (10%) compared with those in the reference group. During hypertensive pregnancy, LVM and RWT increased more than during normotensive pregnancy (92 (95% CI, 75.46-108.54) g (95%) and 0.14 (95% CI, 0.09-0.19) (56%), respectively).
Conclusions During normotensive pregnancy, most cardiac geometric indices change from the second trimester onwards. Both LVM and RWT increase, by 20% and 10%, respectively, consistent with concentric rather than eccentric remodeling. Cardiac adaptation in hypertensive pregnancy deviates from that in healthy pregnancy by a greater change in LVM (95% increase from reference) and RWT (56% increase from reference). Copyright (C) 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- cardiac geometry
- cardiac remodeling
- complicated pregnancy
- LEFT-VENTRICULAR FUNCTION
- NATRIURETIC-PEPTIDE CONCENTRATIONS
- SPECKLE-TRACKING ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
- TOTAL VASCULAR-RESISTANCE
- DIASTOLIC FUNCTION
- PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION
- PREECLAMPTIC PREGNANCY