Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established therapy in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and conduction disorders. Still, one-third of the patients with DCM do not respond to CRT. This study aims to depict the underlying cardiac pathophysiological processes of nonresponse to CRT in patients with DCM using endomyocardial biopsies.
Within the Maastricht and Innsbruck registries of patients with DCM, 99 patients underwent endomyocardial biopsies before CRT implantation, with histological quantification of fibrosis and inflammation, where inflammation was defined as >14 infiltrating cells/mm(2). Echocardiographic left ventricular end-systolic volume reduction >= 15% after 6 months was defined as response to CRT. RNA was isolated from cardiac biopsies of a representative subset of responders and nonresponders.
Sixty-seven patients responded (68%), whereas 32 (32%) did not respond to CRT. Cardiac inflammation before implantation was negatively associated with response to CRT (25% of responders, 47% of nonresponders; odds ratio 0.3 [0.12-0.76]; P=0.01). Endomyocardial biopsies fibrosis did not relate to CRT response. Cardiac inflammation improved the robustness of prediction beyond well-known clinical predictors of CRT response (likelihood ratio test P
Cardiac inflammation along with a transcriptomic profile of high expression of combined proinflammatory and profibrotic genes are associated with a poor response to CRT in patients with DCM.
- cardiac resynchronization therapy
- DEFIBRILLATOR IMPLANTATION TRIAL
- BUNDLE-BRANCH BLOCK
- ESC GUIDELINES