Candidate system analysis in ADHD: Evaluation of nine genes involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission identifies association with DRD1

Marta Ribases, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Amaia Hervas, Cristina Sanchez-Mora, Rosa Bosch, Anna Bielsa, Xavier Gastaminza, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Andreas Reif, Tobias J Renner, Marcel Romanos, Andreas Warnke, Susanne Walitza, Christine M. Freitag, Jobst Meyer, Haukur Palmason, Miquel Casas, Monica Bayes, Bru Cormand*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Several pharmacological and genetic studies support the involvement of the dopamine neurotransmitter system in the aetiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Based on this information we evaluated the contribution to ADHD of nine genes involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission (DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, DRD5, DAT1, TH, DBH and COMT).We genotyped a total of 61 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of 533 ADHD patients (322 children and 211 adults), 533 sex-matched unrelated controls and additional 196 nuclear ADHD families from Spain.The single- and multiple-marker analysis in both population and family-based approaches provided preliminary evidence for the contribution of DRD1 to combined-type ADHD in children (P=8.8e-04; OR=1.50 (1.18-1.90) and P=0.0061; OR=1.73 (1.23-2.45)) but not in adults. Subsequently, we tested positive results for replication in an independent sample of 353 German families with combined-type ADHD children and replicated the initial association between DRD1 and childhood ADHD (P=8.4e-05; OR=3.67 (2.04-6.63)).The replication of the association between DRD1 and ADHD in two European cohorts highlights the validity of our finding and supports the involvement of DRD1 in childhood ADHD.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)281-292
JournalWorld Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012


  • Genetics
  • biological psychiatry
  • childhood ADHD
  • DRD1
  • association study

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