Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is physiologically present and active in The stimulation of BAT in man can potentially increase total daily expenditure and is seen as a possible target to treat obesity. Altered activity is also related to other diseases and therefore the therapeutic potential of BAT could reach beyond obesity. This is supported by both and in vivo reports from animal studies, describing the possible role of both physiology and pathophysiology. In addition, since the discovery of functional BAT several clinically relevant studies have been conducted man. Clinical observations report BAT activity under multiple suggesting BAT could be important in the onset and/or treatment of related to the metabolic syndrome, thyroid disorders, cancer and immune dysfunction. This review highlights those diseases or syndromes in which play a role in relation to prevention, diagnosis or therapy, by research into clinical relevance.