Background: There is a need for biomarkers in accessible matrices, such as blood, for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to measure the serum levels of brain-type fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) and heart-type FABP in patients with dementia-involving diseases. Methods: Brain- and heart-type FABP were measured in serum samples from patients with either Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 31), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 43), or other cognitive disorders (OCD, n = 42) and in 52 healthy controls. The localization of brain- and heart-type FABP was determined in brain sections by immunohistochemistry. Results: Brain-type FABP levels were elevated in serum of 29%, 35%, and 24% of the patients with AD, PD, and OCD, respectively, and in 2% of the healthy donors. Heart-type FABP serum levels were not different amongst the patient groups. Brain-type and heart-type FABP expression was observed in reactive astrocytes in brain sections of patients with AD. Conclusions: In contrast to heart-type FABP, serum levels of brain-type FABP are elevated in a significant proportion of patients with various neurodegenerative diseases and can therefore have importance for defining subgroups of these patients.