Brain activity patterns of phonemic representations are atypical in beginning readers with family risk for dyslexia

Maaike Vandermosten, Joao Correia, Jolijn Vanderauwera, Jan Wouters, Pol Ghesquière, Milene Bonte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

There is an ongoing debate whether phonological deficits in dyslexics should be attributed to (1) less specified representations of speech sounds, like suggested by studies in young children with a familial risk for dyslexia, or (2) to an impaired access to these phonemic representations, as suggested by studies in adults with dyslexia. These conflicting findings are rooted in between study differences in sample characteristics and/or testing techniques. The current study uses the same multivariate fMRI approach as previously used in adults with dyslexia to investigate phonemic representations in 30 beginning readers with a familial risk and 24 beginning readers without a familial risk of dyslexia, of whom 20 were later retrospectively classified as dyslexic. Based on fMRI response patterns evoked by listening to different utterances of /bA/ and /dA/ sounds, multivoxel analyses indicate that the underlying activation patterns of the two phonemes were distinct in children with a low family risk but not in children with high family risk. However, no group differences were observed between children that were later classified as typical versus dyslexic readers, regardless of their family risk status, indicating that poor phonemic representations constitute a risk for dyslexia but are not sufficient to result in reading problems. We hypothesize that poor phonemic representations are trait (family risk) and not state (dyslexia) dependent, and that representational deficits only lead to reading difficulties when they are present in conjunction with other neuroanatomical or -functional deficits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12857
Number of pages15
JournalDevelopmental Science
Volume23
Issue number1
Early online date15 May 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020

Keywords

  • CHILDREN
  • CONNECTIVITY
  • CORTICAL NETWORKS
  • DEVELOPMENTAL DYSLEXIA
  • EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS
  • LANGUAGE
  • MVPA
  • PERCEPTION
  • PHONOLOGICAL SKILLS
  • RESPONSES
  • SPEECH
  • beginning readers
  • dyslexia
  • multivariate fMRI
  • phoneme representations
  • phonological deficit

Cite this

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title = "Brain activity patterns of phonemic representations are atypical in beginning readers with family risk for dyslexia",
abstract = "There is an ongoing debate whether phonological deficits in dyslexics should be attributed to (1) less specified representations of speech sounds, like suggested by studies in young children with a familial risk for dyslexia, or (2) to an impaired access to these phonemic representations, as suggested by studies in adults with dyslexia. These conflicting findings are rooted in between study differences in sample characteristics and/or testing techniques. The current study uses the same multivariate fMRI approach as previously used in adults with dyslexia to investigate phonemic representations in 30 beginning readers with a familial risk and 24 beginning readers without a familial risk of dyslexia, of whom 20 were later retrospectively classified as dyslexic. Based on fMRI response patterns evoked by listening to different utterances of /bA/ and /dA/ sounds, multivoxel analyses indicate that the underlying activation patterns of the two phonemes were distinct in children with a low family risk but not in children with high family risk. However, no group differences were observed between children that were later classified as typical versus dyslexic readers, regardless of their family risk status, indicating that poor phonemic representations constitute a risk for dyslexia but are not sufficient to result in reading problems. We hypothesize that poor phonemic representations are trait (family risk) and not state (dyslexia) dependent, and that representational deficits only lead to reading difficulties when they are present in conjunction with other neuroanatomical or -functional deficits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "CHILDREN, CONNECTIVITY, CORTICAL NETWORKS, DEVELOPMENTAL DYSLEXIA, EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS, LANGUAGE, MVPA, PERCEPTION, PHONOLOGICAL SKILLS, RESPONSES, SPEECH, beginning readers, dyslexia, multivariate fMRI, phoneme representations, phonological deficit",
author = "Maaike Vandermosten and Joao Correia and Jolijn Vanderauwera and Jan Wouters and Pol Ghesqui{\`e}re and Milene Bonte",
note = "This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.",
year = "2020",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1111/desc.12857",
language = "English",
volume = "23",
journal = "Developmental Science",
issn = "1363-755X",
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Brain activity patterns of phonemic representations are atypical in beginning readers with family risk for dyslexia. / Vandermosten, Maaike; Correia, Joao; Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol; Bonte, Milene.

In: Developmental Science, Vol. 23, No. 1, e12857, 01.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Brain activity patterns of phonemic representations are atypical in beginning readers with family risk for dyslexia

AU - Vandermosten, Maaike

AU - Correia, Joao

AU - Vanderauwera, Jolijn

AU - Wouters, Jan

AU - Ghesquière, Pol

AU - Bonte, Milene

N1 - This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PY - 2020/1

Y1 - 2020/1

N2 - There is an ongoing debate whether phonological deficits in dyslexics should be attributed to (1) less specified representations of speech sounds, like suggested by studies in young children with a familial risk for dyslexia, or (2) to an impaired access to these phonemic representations, as suggested by studies in adults with dyslexia. These conflicting findings are rooted in between study differences in sample characteristics and/or testing techniques. The current study uses the same multivariate fMRI approach as previously used in adults with dyslexia to investigate phonemic representations in 30 beginning readers with a familial risk and 24 beginning readers without a familial risk of dyslexia, of whom 20 were later retrospectively classified as dyslexic. Based on fMRI response patterns evoked by listening to different utterances of /bA/ and /dA/ sounds, multivoxel analyses indicate that the underlying activation patterns of the two phonemes were distinct in children with a low family risk but not in children with high family risk. However, no group differences were observed between children that were later classified as typical versus dyslexic readers, regardless of their family risk status, indicating that poor phonemic representations constitute a risk for dyslexia but are not sufficient to result in reading problems. We hypothesize that poor phonemic representations are trait (family risk) and not state (dyslexia) dependent, and that representational deficits only lead to reading difficulties when they are present in conjunction with other neuroanatomical or -functional deficits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

AB - There is an ongoing debate whether phonological deficits in dyslexics should be attributed to (1) less specified representations of speech sounds, like suggested by studies in young children with a familial risk for dyslexia, or (2) to an impaired access to these phonemic representations, as suggested by studies in adults with dyslexia. These conflicting findings are rooted in between study differences in sample characteristics and/or testing techniques. The current study uses the same multivariate fMRI approach as previously used in adults with dyslexia to investigate phonemic representations in 30 beginning readers with a familial risk and 24 beginning readers without a familial risk of dyslexia, of whom 20 were later retrospectively classified as dyslexic. Based on fMRI response patterns evoked by listening to different utterances of /bA/ and /dA/ sounds, multivoxel analyses indicate that the underlying activation patterns of the two phonemes were distinct in children with a low family risk but not in children with high family risk. However, no group differences were observed between children that were later classified as typical versus dyslexic readers, regardless of their family risk status, indicating that poor phonemic representations constitute a risk for dyslexia but are not sufficient to result in reading problems. We hypothesize that poor phonemic representations are trait (family risk) and not state (dyslexia) dependent, and that representational deficits only lead to reading difficulties when they are present in conjunction with other neuroanatomical or -functional deficits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KW - CHILDREN

KW - CONNECTIVITY

KW - CORTICAL NETWORKS

KW - DEVELOPMENTAL DYSLEXIA

KW - EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS

KW - LANGUAGE

KW - MVPA

KW - PERCEPTION

KW - PHONOLOGICAL SKILLS

KW - RESPONSES

KW - SPEECH

KW - beginning readers

KW - dyslexia

KW - multivariate fMRI

KW - phoneme representations

KW - phonological deficit

U2 - 10.1111/desc.12857

DO - 10.1111/desc.12857

M3 - Article

C2 - 31090993

VL - 23

JO - Developmental Science

JF - Developmental Science

SN - 1363-755X

IS - 1

M1 - e12857

ER -