Body mass index is negatively associated with telomere length: a collaborative cross-sectional meta-analysis of 87 observational studies

Marij Gielen*, Geja J. Hageman, Evangelia E. Antoniou, Katarina Nordfjall, Massimo Mangino, Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam, Tim de Meyer, Audrey E. Hendricks, Erik J. Giltay, Steven C. Hunt, Jennifer A. Nettleton, Klelia D. Salpea, Vanessa A. Diaz, Ramin Farzaneh-Far, Gil Atzmon, Sarah E. Harris, Lifang Hou, David Gilley, Iiris Hovatta, Jeremy D. KarkHisham Nassar, David J. Kurz, Karen A. Mather, Peter Willeit, Yun-Ling Zheng, Sofia Pavanello, Ellen W. Demerath, Line Rode, Daniel Bunout, Andrew Steptoe, Lisa Boardman, Amelia Marti, Belinda Needham, Wei Zheng, Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, Andrew J. Pellatt, Jaakko Kaprio, Jonathan N. Hofmann, Christian Gieger, Giuseppe Paolisso, Jacob B. H. Hjelmborg, Lisa Mirabello, Teresa Seeman, Jason Wong, Pim van der Harst, Linda Broer, Florian Kronenberg, Barbara Kollerits, Timo Strandberg, Dan TA Eisenberg, Catherine Duggan, Josine E. Verhoeven, Roxanne Schaakxs, Raffaela Zannolli, Rosana MR dos Reis, Fadi J. Charchar, Maciej Tomaszewski, U. Mons, Ilja Demuth, Andrea Elena Iglesias Molli, Guo Cheng, Dmytro Krasnienkov, Bianca D'Antono, Marek Kasielski, Barry J McDonnell, Richard P. Ebstein, Kristina Sundquist, Maurice P. Zeegers, TELOMAAS Group

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Background: Even before the onset of age-related diseases, obesity might be a contributing factor to the cumulative burden of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation throughout the life course. Obesity may therefore contribute to accelerated shortening of telomeres. Consequently, obese persons are more likely to have shorter telomeres, but the association between body mass index (BMI) and leukocyte telomere length (TL) might differ across the life span and between ethnicities and sexes.

Objective: A collaborative cross-sectionalmeta-analysis of observational studies was conducted to investigate the associations between BMI and TL across the life span.

Design: Eighty-seven distinct study samples were included in the meta-analysis capturing data from 146,114 individuals. Study-specific age-and sex-adjusted regression coefficients were combined by using a random-effects model in which absolute [base pairs (bp)] and relative telomere to single-copy gene ratio (T/S ratio) TLs were regressed against BMI. Stratified analysis was performed by 3 age categories ("young": 18-60 y; "middle": 61-75 y; and "old": > 75 y), sex, and ethnicity.

Results: Each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a-3.99 bp (95% CI: -5.17, -2.81 bp) difference in TL in the total pooled sample; among young adults, each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a -7.67 bp (95% CI:-10.03,-5.31 bp) difference. Each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a -1.58 x 10(-3) unit T/S ratio (0.16% decrease; 95% CI: -2.14 x 10(-3), -1.01 x 10(-3)) difference in ageand sex-adjusted relative TL in the total pooled sample; among young adults, each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a -2.58 x 10(-3) unit T/S ratio (0.26% decrease; 95% CI: -3.92 x 10(-3), -1.25 x 10(-3)). The associations were predominantly for the white pooled population. No sex differences were observed.

Conclusions: A higher BMI is associated with shorter telomeres, especially in younger individuals. The presently observed difference is not negligible. Meta-analyses of longitudinal studies evaluating change in body weight alongside change in TL are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)453-475
Number of pages23
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume108
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2018

Keywords

  • BMI
  • telomere length
  • obesity
  • low-grade inflammation
  • meta-analysis
  • observational studies
  • STRONG HEART FAMILY
  • HELSINKI BIRTH COHORT
  • CORONARY-ARTERY CALCIFICATION
  • OXIDATIVE DNA-DAMAGE
  • PULSE-WAVE VELOCITY
  • II BASE-II
  • CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE
  • AMERICAN-INDIANS
  • CANCER RISK
  • INSULIN-RESISTANCE

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