Blood pressure variability in relation to outcome in the International Database of Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek, Lutgarde Thijs, Tom Richart, Yan Li, Tine W. Hansen, Jose Boggia, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Masahiro Kikuya, Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz, Jan A. Staessen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring provides information not only on the BP level but also on the diurnal changes in BP. In the present review, we summarized the main findings of the International Database on Ambulatory BP in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) with regard to risk stratification based on BP variability. The predictive accuracy of daytime and nighttime BP and the night-to-day BP ratio depended on the disease outcome under study and treatment status, and differed for fatal outcomes compared with the composite of fatal and nonfatal diseases. An exaggerated morning surge, exceeding the 90th percentile of the population, is an independent risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular and cardiac events. Conversely, a sleep-trough or preawakening morning surge in systolic BP below 20 mm Hg is probably not associated with an increased risk of death or cardiovascular events. BP variability as captured by the average of the daytime and nighttime s.d. weighted for the duration of the daytime and nighttime interval (s.d.d(n)) and the average real variability (ARV(24)) predicted the outcome, but improved the prediction of the composite of all cardiovascular events by only 0.1%. In conclusion, the IDACO observations support the concept that BP variability adds to risk stratification, but above all highlight that 24-h ambulatory BP level remains the main predictor to be considered in clinical practice. Hypertension Research (2010) 33, 757-766; doi:10.1038/hr.2010.110; published online 8 July 2010
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)757-766
JournalHypertension Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2010


  • blood pressure
  • cardiovascular outcome
  • diurnal blood pressure variability
  • morning surge

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