Blood pressure and heart rate related to sex in untreated subjects: the India ABPM study

Upendra Kaul, Ajit Bhagwat, Stefano Omboni, Arvind K. Pancholia, Suhas Hardas, Neil Bardoloi, Deepak Davidson, Peruvamba R. Sivakadaksham, Jagdish C. Mohan, Peruvamba R. Vaidyanathan, Subramaniam Natarajan, Lakshnmi N. P. Kapardhi, Karumuri S. Reddy, Dharmesh Solanki, Jitendra S. Makkar, M. Viswanathan, Priyadarshini Arambam, Viraj Suvarna, Willem J. Verberk*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Women are underrepresented in groups of patients seeking hypertension care in India. The present paper reports trends in office and ambulatory blood pressure measurement (OBPM, ABPM) and 24-h heart rate (HR) with sex in 14,977 subjects untreated for hypertension (aged 47.3 +/- 13.9 years, males 69.4%) visiting primary care physicians. Results showed that, for systolic blood pressure (SBP), females had lower daytime ABPM (131 +/- 16 vs. 133 +/- 14 mm Hg,P <.001) but higher nighttime ABPM (122 +/- 18 vs. 121 +/- 16 mm Hg,P <.001) than males. Females had higher HR than men at daytime (80 +/- 11 vs 79 +/- 11.5 bpm) and nighttime (71 +/- 11 vs 69 +/- 11), respectively (allP <.001). Dipping percentages for SBP (7.4 +/- 7.3 vs 9.3 +/- 7.4%), DBP (10.1 +/- 8.6 vs. 12.3 +/- 8.9%), and HR (10.7 +/- 7.9 vs. 12.8 +/- 9.2%) were lower (P <.001) for females than for males, respectively. Females more often had isolated nighttime hypertension as compared to males (14.9%, n = 684% vs 10.6%, n = 1105;P <.001). BP patterns and HR showed clear differences in sex, particularly at nighttime. As females were more often affected by non-dipping and elevated nighttime SBP and HR than males, they should receive ABPM, at least, as frequently as men to document higher risk necessitating treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1154-1162
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Hypertension
Volume22
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020

Keywords

  • AGE
  • CARDIOVASCULAR RISK
  • EXERCISE
  • HYPERTENSION
  • India
  • MANAGEMENT
  • MORTALITY
  • POPULATION
  • PREVENTION
  • PROGNOSTIC VALUE
  • TASK-FORCE
  • ambulatory blood pressure measurement
  • hypertension management
  • isolated nighttime hypertension
  • masked hypertension
  • office blood pressure measurement
  • white coat hypertension
  • WOMEN
  • GENDER
  • HOME

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