Ferulic acid (FA) is the most abundant phenolic compound in wheat grain, mainly located in the bran. However, its bioaccessibility from the bran matrix is extremely low. Different bioprocessing techniques involving fermentation or enzymatic and fermentation treatments of wheat bran were developed aiming at improving the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds in bran-containing breads. The bioaccessibility of ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and sinapic acid was assessed with an in vitro model of upper gastrointestinal tract (TIM-1). Colonic metabolism of the phenolic compounds in the nonbioaccessible fraction of the breads was studied with an in vitro model of human colon (TIM-2). The most effective treatment was the combination of enzymes and fermentation that increased the bioaccessibility of FA from 1.1% to 5.5%. The major colonic metabolites were 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid and 3-phenylpropionic acid. Bran bioprocessing increases the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds as well as the colonic end metabolite 3-phenylpropionic acid.
Mateo Anson, N., Selinheimo, E., Havenaar, R., Aura, A. M., Mattila, I., Lehtinen, P., Bast, A., Poutanen, K., & Haenen, G. R. (2009). Bioprocessing of wheat bran improves in vitro bioaccessibility and colonic metabolism of phenolic compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(14), 6148-6155. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf900492h