Biomarkers of brain damage in preterm infants

Francesco M. Risso, Andrea Sannia, Danilo A. W. Gavilanes, Hans J. Vles, Micaela Colivicchi, Alberto Ricotti, Giovanni Li Volti, Diego Gazzolo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objective: There is growing evidence on the usefulness of biomarkers in the early detection of preterm infants at risk for brain damage. However, among different tools Activin A, S100B protein and adrenomedullin assessment offer the possibility to investigate brain/multiorgan function and development. This could be especially useful in perinatal medicine that requires even more non-invasive techniques in order to fulfill the minimal handling in diagnostic and therapeutic strategy performance. Materials and methods: The concept of Unconventional Biological Fluid (UBF: urine and saliva) is becoming even stronger and regards the assessment in non-invasive biological fluids of biochemical markers involved in the cascade of events leading to brain damage. Results: Activin A, S100B protein and adrenomedullin in UBF were increased in preterm newborns developing brain damage and/or ominous outcome. Conclusions: The present manuscript offers an update on the usefulness of Activin A, S100B protein an adrenomedullin in UBF as brain damage markers. The findings open a new cue on the use of these markers in daily neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) activities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-104
JournalJournal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012


  • Activin A
  • brain development
  • cardiovascular
  • oxidative stress
  • S100B

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