Optimal collection and analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are prerequisites for standardisation and reproducibility of assessments. The present study aimed to assess reproducibility of EBC volume, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), 8-isoprostane and cytokine measurements using different condensers, including a newly developed glass condenser. At four points in time, 30 healthy subjects performed sequential EBC collections randomly using the following four condensers: glass, silicone, EcoScreen (Erich Jaeger GmbH, Hoechberg, Germany) and an optimised glass condenser. In small EBC samples, H(2)O(2) was measured by spectrophotometer, 8-isoprostane by enzyme immunoassay, and cytokines by multiplexed xMAP technology (Luminex Corporation, Austin, TX, USA). The optimised glass condenser yielded significantly more EBC volume (median 2,025 microL, interquartile range 1,600-2,525). The reproducibility of EBC volume, yielded by the new glass condenser, was comparable with EcoScreen (19-20 coefficients of variation (CV)%), but was significantly better compared with silicone and glass (29-37 CV%). The new condenser was associated with significantly more detections of H(2)O(2), 8-isoprostane, interleukin-2, -4, -5 and -13, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Isoprostane concentrations were significantly higher using the new condenser, whereas H(2)O(2) and cytokine concentrations were not. Reproducibility of biomarkers was equally variable for all condenser types. In conclusion, significantly more exhaled breath condensate volume and biomarker detections were found using the optimised glass condenser, including higher 8-isoprostane levels. However, biomarker reproducibility in exhaled breath condensate in healthy adults was not influenced by the type of condenser.
Rosias, P. P., Robroeks, C. M., Kester, A., den Hartog, G. J., Wodzig, W. K., Rijkers, G. T., Zimmermann, L. J., van Schayck, C. P., Jöbsis, Q., & Dompeling, E. D. (2008). Biomarker reproducibility in exhaled breath condensate collected with different condensers. European Respiratory Journal, 31(5), 934-42. https://doi.org/10.1183/09031936.00073207