Biological and Clinical Markers to Differentiate the Type of Anxiety Disorders

F. Cosci, G. Mansueto

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademic

Abstract

The present chapter is an overview of possible biomarkers which distinguish anxiety disorders as classified by the DSM-5. Structural or activity changes in the brain regions; changes in N-acetylaspartate/creatine, dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin; hearth rate variability; hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity; error-related negativity; respiratory regulation; and genetic variants are proposed. However, their clinical utility is questionable due to low specificity and sensitivity: the majority does not distinguish subjects with different anxiety disorders, and they might be influenced by stress, comorbidity, physical activity, and psychotropic medications. In this framework, the staging model, a clinimetric tool which allows to define the degree of progression of a disease at a point in time and where the patient is located on the continuum of the course of the disease, is proposed since several DSM anxiety disorders take place at different stages of the same syndrome according to the staging model. Thus, a stage-specific biomarker model for anxiety disorders is hypothesized and illustrated.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAnxiety Disorders
Subtitle of host publicationRethinking and Understanding Recent Discoveries
EditorsYong-Ku Kim
PublisherSpringer Singapore
Pages197-218
Number of pages22
Volume1191
Edition1
ISBN (Electronic)978-981-32-9705-0
ISBN (Print)978-981-32-9704-3, 978-981-32-9707-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020

Publication series

SeriesAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN0065-2598

Keywords

  • allostatic load
  • base-line
  • gene polymorphisms
  • heart-rate-variability
  • mean platelet volume
  • panic disorder
  • pituitary-adrenal axis
  • salivary cortisol
  • social anxiety
  • stress reactivity
  • ALLOSTATIC LOAD
  • BASE-LINE
  • PANIC DISORDER
  • SALIVARY CORTISOL
  • SOCIAL ANXIETY
  • GENE POLYMORPHISMS
  • HEART-RATE-VARIABILITY
  • PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS
  • STRESS REACTIVITY
  • MEAN PLATELET VOLUME

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