Beyond Nutrient Deficiency-Opportunities to Improve Nutritional Status and Promote Health Modernizing DRIs and Supplementation Recommendations

Michael I McBurney, Jeffrey B Blumberg, Rebecca B Costello, Manfred Eggersdorfer, John W Erdman, William S Harris, Elizabeth J Johnson, Susan Hazels Mitmesser, Robert C Post, Deshanie Rai, Leon J Schurgers

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The US Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) provide dietary recommendations to meet nutrient needs, promote health, and prevent disease. Despite 40 years of DGA, the prevalence of under-consumed nutrients continues in the US and globally, although dietary supplement use can help to fill shortfalls. Nutrient recommendations are based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) to meet the nutrient requirements for nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group and many need to be updated using current evidence. There is an opportunity to modernize vitamin and mineral intake recommendations based on biomarker or surrogate endpoint levels needed to 'prevent deficiency' with DRIs based on ranges of biomarker or surrogate endpoints levels that support normal cell/organ/tissue function in healthy individuals, and to establish DRIs for bioactive compounds. We recommend vitamin K and Mg DRIs be updated and DRIs be established for lutein and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA). With increasing interest in personalized (or precision) nutrition, we propose greater research investment in validating biomarkers and metabolic health measures and the development and use of inexpensive diagnostic devices. Data generated from such approaches will help elucidate optimal nutrient status, provide objective evaluations of an individual's nutritional status, and serve to provide personalized nutrition guidance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1844
Number of pages25
JournalNutrients
Volume13
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 May 2021

Keywords

  • ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID
  • DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID
  • DRIs
  • EPA and DHA
  • LONG-CHAIN OMEGA-3-FATTY-ACIDS
  • N-3 FATTY-ACIDS
  • PIGMENT OPTICAL-DENSITY
  • POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN
  • SERUM MAGNESIUM
  • STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL
  • US ADULTS
  • VITAMIN-C STATUS
  • dietary guidelines
  • lutein
  • magnesium
  • nutritional status
  • vitamin K

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