Intacerebroventricularly (ICV) injected streptozotocin (STREP) decreases central glucose metabolism and energy metabolism, which has also been observed in patients with dementia. In the present study we examined the behavioral (open-field behavior and two-way active avoidance learning) and biochemical (hippocampal ChAT activity) effects of STREP treatment in old Lewis rats. The results suggest that hippocampal function was affected by STREP. STREP-treated rats acquired the two-way active avoidance task faster than the control rats, which indicates that STREP treatment does not lead to a general learning deficit. Hippocampal ChAT activity was decreased in STREP-treated rats. The present results suggests also that susceptibility to STREP amy not be related to age in Lewis rats.