## Abstract

Basic numerical competences are seen as building blocks for later numerical and mathematical achievement. The current study aimed at investigating the structure of early numeracy reflected by different basic numerical competences in kindergarten and its predictive value for mathematical achievement 6 years later using data from large-scale assessment. This allowed analyses based on considerably large sample sizes (N > 1700). A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a model differentiating five basic numerical competences at the end of kindergarten fitted the data better than a one-factor model of early numeracy representing a comprehensive number sense. In addition, these basic numerical competences were observed to reliably predict performance in a curricular mathematics test in Grade 6 even after controlling for influences of general cognitive ability. Thus, our results indicated a differentiated view on early numeracy considering basic numerical competences in kindergarten reflected in large-scale assessment data. Consideration of different basic numerical competences allows for evaluating their specific predictive value for later mathematical achievement but also mathematical learning difficulties. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 32-48 |

Number of pages | 17 |

Journal | Journal of Experimental Child Psychology |

Volume | 167 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Mar 2018 |

## Keywords

- Mathematical achievement
- Number sense
- Early numeracy
- Basic numerical competences
- Kindergarten
- Longitudinal studies
- APPROXIMATE NUMBER SENSE
- EARLY IDENTIFICATION
- MATHEMATICS
- KINDERGARTEN
- ACHIEVEMENT
- STUDENTS
- PRECURSORS
- CHILDREN
- DOMAIN
- 1ST