Baroreflex Activation Therapy Lowers Blood Pressure in Patients With Resistant Hypertension Results From the Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Rheos Pivotal Trial

John D. Bisognano*, George Bakris, Mitra K. Nadim, Juan Luis Munoz Sanchez, Abraham A. Kroon, Jill Schafer, Peter W. de Leeuw, Domenic A. Sica

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objectives We sought to determine the effect of baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with resistant hypertension. Background The Rheos Pivotal Trial evaluated BAT for resistant hypertension in a double-blind, randomized, prospective, multicenter, placebo-controlled Phase III clinical trial. Methods This was a double-blind randomized trial of 265 subjects with resistant hypertension implanted and subsequently randomized (2: 1) 1 month after implantation. Subjects received either BAT (Group A) for the first 6 months or delayed BAT initiation following the 6-month visit (Group B). The 5 coprimary endpoints were: 1) acute SBP responder rate at 6 months; 2) sustained responder rate at 12 months; 3) procedure safety; 4) BAT safety; and 5) device safety. Results The trial showed significant benefit for the endpoints of sustained efficacy, BAT safety, and device safety. However, it did not meet the endpoints for acute responders or procedural safety. A protocol-specified ancillary analysis showed 42% (Group A) versus 24% (Group B) achieving SBP
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)765-773
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 9 Aug 2011


  • baroreflex
  • medical device
  • resistant hypertension

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