Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for acute myeloid leukemia in patients in first complete remission after one versus two induction courses: A study from the ALWP of the EBMT

A. Nagler*, J.E. Galimard, M. Labopin, D. Blaise, W. Arcese, S.M. Trisolini, D.P. Wu, A. Pigneux, G. Van Gorkom, M.T. Rubio, T. Gedde-Dahl, A. Huynh, F. Lanza, N.C. Gorin, M. Mohty

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background Achieving complete remission (CR) is the main goal in AML treatment and a prerequisite for successful autologous stem cell transplantation (ACT). Methods Comparing results of peripheral blood ACT in patients with AML in CR1 attained following 1 versus 2 chemotherapy courses transplanted in 2000-2019. Results Patients 1532 (84%) with one and 293 (16%) patients with two induction chemotherapies courses (a total of 1825 patients) were included in the study. Follow-up was 7.9 (95% CI: 7.4-8.4) and 7.7 (95% CI: 7.0-8.6) years (p = 0.8). Time from diagnosis to ACT was 4.7 (range, 3.9-5.8) versus 5.7 (range, 4.7-7.1) months (p < 0.001), respectively. Leukemia free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years were inferior for patients achieving CR1 with 2 versus 1 course of chemotherapy: 26.6% versus 41.7% (HR = 1.42 [95% CI: 1.22-1.66], p < 0.001) and 36.2% versus 53.3%, (HR = 1.48 [95% CI: 1.25-1.75], p < 0.001), and 5-year relapse incidence (RI) was higher: 67.2% versus 52.3%, (HR = 1.46 [95% CI: 1.25-1.72], p < 0.001). Five-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 6.2% versus 6.0% for patients with 2 versus 1 chemotherapy courses, and did not differ significantly (HR = 1.31 [95% CI: 0.81-2.10], p = 0.27). Conclusions LFS and OS were inferior and relapse rate was higher in AML patients who received two inductions chemotherapy courses to reach CR1 before being autografted. AML patients who required 2 induction courses to achieve remission, may be offered allogeneic transplantation rather than an autologous one in an attempt to reduce their high RI and improve outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1482-1491
Number of pages10
JournalCancer Medicine
Issue number2
Early online date26 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • acute myeloid leukemia
  • autologous
  • complete remission
  • induction chemotherapy
  • stem cell transplantation
  • AML

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